SmartZYME™ White Paper

The Safest Way to Gain Clean DHA Nutrition!

You may have seen a farmed fish fillet with thick white stripes like the ones below. This is trans-fats, or saturated fats that are solid and accumulate not only in cold water fish, but even at body temperatures of mammals. Their appearance means that even though Omega 3 fish oil may have been added to their feed, the feed did not include DHA metabolic producing enzymes.

DHA, the most important poly-unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) is liquid even at temperatures below -40oC. That is why DHA is called “Nature’s Anti-freeze”. It works to melt bad fats to keep them from accumulating in the body.

Farmed fish has less DHA content than wild fish, even though fish farmers add expensive Omega 3 fish oil additives to their feed. Salmon is a carnivorous fish. Wild salmon produces DHA internally, because the fish acquire DHA producing enzymes through their food chain. The $10 Billion Omega 3 Oil Industry doesn’t want you to know this.

To give you a little background:

No multi-cell organisms; neither humans, animals, fish, nor krill, nor any land plants, possess the DNA sequence to produce the metabolic enzymes that synthesize DHA. They are acquired through the food chain.

For a long time the western scientific community firmly believed that all proteins are digested into amino acids and reassembled as endogenous protein by our DNA. However, recent discoveries revealed that an organism’s cells have the mechanism to acquire whole proteins without disassembling the structure. The effect of exogenous enzymes to the organism are slowly becoming elucidated, though we still don’t know how and where humans gain such enzymes that allow for the synthesis of DHA. It is possible that such enzymes are transferred by colostrum from generation to generation.

We believe modern pets, farmed animals (including cultured fish) and humans are especially vulnerable to the lack of DHA and the metabolic DHA synthase enzymes, since we are dependent on modern processed foods, that do not contain such undenatured enzymes.

Further supporting our concept is the fact that some dinoflagellates (like the kind of phytoplankton we grow), have longer DNA chains than those of humans. It tells us that multi-cell organisms have long ago, in the process of evolution, farmed out the production of such enzymes and DHA to single cell phytoplankton and instead focused on the assembly of the building blocks of the body structures. Fortunately, these phytoplankton

(algae) and the enzymes are ubiquitous in world oceans1. However, not all dinoflagellates have these DHA producing enzymes. We grow a species that produces only DHA without producing other PUFAs.2 Further, because we do not use heat in any part of our production process, the metabolic enzymes to produce DHA are preserved intact, active, and undenatured. We believe DHA supplementation by extracted, purified, and over- processed finished oil products, whether fish or algal sourced, is neither natural, nor safe, and is unsustainable because it greatly upsets the natural ocean ecosystem.

Dirty Secrets of Omega 3 Industry: What they don’t want you to know.

DSM Bioscience, p.k.a. Martek Bio-Science invented the method to produce DHA triglyceride oil from C. cohnii in 1992, in order to supply “Infant formula and baby food containing docosahexaenoic acid obtained from dinoflagellates3.”4 Thus, the market for DHA oil for infant formula, and the identified need for DHA for optimum brain function was born. This paved the way for fish oil to be extracted and sold to supplement DHA nutritional needs. DHA was known to be rich in cold water fish. Fish oil naturally has much more EPA than DHA. EPA offers no unique health benefits that are not also provided by DHA. Fish oil producers (Omega 3 industry) knew that DHA was the most5 important Omega 3 fatty acid, but could not separate EPA from DHA to produce Omega 3 oil. So instead, they spent millions of dollars in research to establish the values of EPA to create the market for “Omega 3” fish oil. And then had to artificially “over-concentrate” the amount of DHA in their finished products67.

In subsequent years, Martek was awarded additional patents relating to Schizochytrium sp.; (another dinoflagellate), in which the DNA from another species (C. Cohnii) was genetically transplanted to a sample strain of Schizochytrium to enhance its DHA concentration. They named this the Polyketide Synthase Enzyme8. Interestingly, Martek has been silent about the C. cohnii DHA synthase enzyme, because it is not patentable. The current $10B market for DHA/Omega 3 grew out of Martek’s successful invention of “single cell oil”, but remains an imperfect solution to DHA nutritional supplementation, though it has been widely relied upon because no safer, better alternative existed.

Fish Oil Oxidation

Fish Oil is an unsafe solution to Omega 3 supplementation because it is very susceptible to oxidation. Fish oil can become oxidized much sooner than the stated product “expiration date” once the seal is opened, to cause potentially devastating neurological effects to any pets or persons who consume it, that may outweigh any intended health benefits. The toxicity of oxidized fish oil Omega 3 is more than double that of algae based DHA, because of the much larger amount of EPA and oxidation sites present though extracted algal DHA oil is not immune from damaging oxidation. Like any other PUFA, once EPA becomes oxidized it turns from anti-oxidant to oxidant that provides neurotoxicity.10 Even gel caps do not provide sufficient oxygen barrier protection.

Due to the distribution and shelf life requirement, fish oil producers need to infuse tocopherol acetate, (oil soluble antioxidant synthetic Vitamin E) to protect the PUFA molecules from oxidation. Tocopherol gets oxidized at a lower potential than PUFA. It thereby acts as an antioxidant, (or oxidant absorber). However, once oxidized, it loses its capacity to protect the PUFA from oxidation. PUFA peroxidation is a chain reaction that involves the covalent double bond sites of each molecule. Fish oil producers intend to add enough tocopherols to extend the packaged shelf life. While shelf life is determined by the amount of peroxide in the oil in the package, it does not account for any added oxidation that might occur after the seal is broken and the contents are exposed to the air. Recent reports show some fish oils tested have unacceptable levels of oxidation within 90 days of package opening, (well within the stated shelf life)11121314. Extracted oil, both fish and algal sourced, is an unsafe, imperfect and flawed solution to DHA nutritional supplementation. This is true not only because it is so easily prone to oxidation, but also because any DHA producing metabolic enzymes that the fish may have acquired from eating the ocean algae, or that algae may naturally process, are stripped by the extraction process.

SmartZYME™

SmartZYME™ is fresh, whole cell DHA nutrition with preserved active metabolic enzymes that are critically missing in modern diets that can constitutionally remedy many adverse health conditions caused by metabolic imbalances.

Moreover, unlike other phytoplankton that produce Omega 3 PUFA, including DHA15, SmartZYMETM’s metabolic enzymes convert glucose directly to pure free-DHA and DHA laden good fats. This is unique to SmartZYMETM’s cell species. Research shows higher levels of DHA in the body increases the basal metabolic rate (BMR)16. This means SmartZYMETM can be used as a remedy to modern metabolic diseases such as Cushing’s Syndrome, Metabolic Syndrome, diabetes, fatty liver disease, etc. in addition to a direct remedy to cognitive decline or even damage caused by consuming oxidized fish oil. Like other Omega 3 oils, DHA is beneficial to cardiovascular health, reduces inflammation, improves mobility, helps skin and coat issues, etc. as long as it is clean and fresh, and unoxidized17.

Like modern engineering, modern (Western) human and veterinary medicine focuses on “solving problems”, i.e. removing or repairing symptoms. SmartZYME™ is not meant to be a medicine to cure a particular disease, but is a component of healthy, balanced, wholesome nutrition to contribute to better pet vitality, health maintenance, and disease prevention.

Illnesses potentially caused by consuming oxidized extracted Omega 3 oil, are providing an opportunity for SmartZYMETM to directly remedy such adverse health conditions. We have received testimonials showing not only mobility improvement, but cognitive uptake, as well. The phospholipid DHA inside SmartZYMETM is highly bioavailable and fast acting to correct conditions caused by metabolic imbalances, and the enzymes work to multiply its long term benefit.

Illnesses potentially caused by consuming oxidized extracted Omega 3 oil, are providing an opportunity for SmartZYMETM to directly remedy such adverse health conditions. We have received testimonials showing not only mobility improvement, but cognitive uptake, as well. The phospholipid DHA inside SmartZYMETM is highly bioavailable and fast acting to correct conditions caused by metabolic imbalances, and the enzymes work to multiply its long term benefit.

About Us

In pursuit of high lipid value phytoplankton, Field Energy (FE), a Connecticut LLC asked NCMA at Bigelow Laboratories, in Boothbay, Maine, to conduct DHA lipid concentration profile studies of a species of green algae called Pavlova s.p. that we knew to be a high value DHA producer. We selected 10 Pavlova s.p. strains, to benchmark against the species C. cohnii, that Martek patented for its Single Cell Oil. We were astonished at the results. C. cohnii showed an extremely fast growth rate, and unbelievable concentration of DHA (51%). Based on these findings, FE abandoned further work with Pavlova s.p. and instead focused on the growth of C. cohnii.

Due to the heterotrophic nature of C. cohnii, and contamination concerns, FE developed the low CAPEX plastic fermentor system called SPAGS, that is currently patent pending and created FPN LLC d.b.a Phytosmart together as a joint venture with Bigelow Labs. However, Bigelow’s inability to accommodate the “for profit” business structure of the JV ended our collaboration after PhytoSmart was forced to forfeit an approved SBIR due to Bigelow’s 501(c)3 status. PhytoSmart continued alone to develop the growth system; first as a tenant at Maine Aquaculture Innovation Center (MAIC) housed at U. Maine’s Darling Marine Center (DMC), in Walpole ME, and currently at TechPlace, Brunswick, ME. This relocation was necessary to accommodate PhytoSmart’s “21st century” power requirements. In 2017, PhytoSmart received funding from Maine Technology Institute, to pursue yield maximization parameter development for this species.

Initially as a technology follower, PhytoSmart intended to extract DHA oil with cleaner, low temperature methods using supercritical CO2 extraction technology. The low temperature extraction method would keep the DHA Synthase Enzymes intact in the spent biomass. The direction of the business was B2B to develop large quantity production capacity using SPAGS.

With the twist of fate, that often happens during development of game changing discoveries, PhytoSmart found the consumer market niche untapped and wide open.

With its refocus to the B2C market, PhytoSmart realized that the market was already flooded with extracted Omega 3 oil that is an imperfect solution to DHA nutrition due to damaging oxidative nature. In order to develop a clean delivery system that is not vulnerable to the oxidation, PhytoSmart chose to package its C. cohnii whole cell biomass as a fresh, whole cell, functional treat with the activity of the synthase enzymes preserved. PhytoSmart markets this C. cohnii product under the name SmartZYMETM that has a high concentration of DHA in its phospholipid, and DHA synthase enzymes within.

For more information please contact: Hiro Hara, Co-Founder, CSO. hiro.hara@phytosmart.com

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